The soil started mainly in the rocks, together with the decomposition of animals and plants, if you can imagine long stretches or periods when large rock masses were crumbling and breaking.
Heat, water action, and friction were mainly responsible for this. Resistance here means the friction and crushing of the rock mass against the rock mass.
Think of the enormous rocks, perfect chaos, hitting, scraping, settling on each other. What would be the result? Well, I’m sure you could all work this out. It happened: pieces of rock were spent, a lot of heat was produced, remnants of rock were pressed to form new masses of stones, some parts dissolving in the water.
Because I almost feel the stress and tension of it all myself. Can you?
There have also been significant changes in temperature. Everything was first heated to a high temperature, then gradually cooled. Just think of the cracks, the ruins, the upheavals that these changes must have caused!
You know some of the winter effects of sudden freezes and thaws. But the small examples of broken water pipes and broken jugs are nothing for what was going on in the world in those days. Water and gases in the atmosphere helped in this ruined work.
From all this frictional action, which we call mechanics, it is easy to understand how the sand was formed. This represents one of the great divisions of the sandy soil. The seashores are large masses of pure sand. If the ground were nothing but broken rock masses, it would be inferior and unproductive.
But the primary forms of deterioration of animal and plant life became part of the rock mass and resulted in better soil. Thus, the dirt that we speak of as sandy soils have mixed with the sand of other materials, sometimes clay, sometimes vegetable matter or humus, and, often, animal waste.
Clay takes us to another class of clay soils. It turns out that certain portions of rock masses dissolved when the water ran over them, and the heat was plentiful and plentiful. This dissolution occurred mostly because there is a specific gas in the air called carbon dioxide or carbonic acid gas.
This gas attacks and changes certain substances in the rocks. Sometimes, you see large rocks with spiky portions, as if they had been devoured. Carbonic acid did that. This transformed this eaten part into something we call clay. Such a change is not mechanical, but chemical.
The difference in the two types of change is precisely this: in the only case of sand, where an automatic change occurred, you still have exactly what you started, except that the size of the mass is smaller.
You started with a big rock and ended up with small particles of sand. But you didn’t have any different types of rock in the end. The mechanical action can be illustrated with a piece of sugar in parts.
Let the sugar represent a large mass of rock. Break the sugar, and even the smallest is sugar. It is the same with the rock mass, but in the case of a chemical change, you start with one thing and end with another.
You started with a large mass of rock that contained a portion that was altered by the acid that acts on it. It turned out to be something completely different that we call clay.
So, in the case of chemical change, something starts with something, and, in the end, we have something completely different. Clay soils are often called mud soils due to the amount of water used in their formation.
The third type of soil with which we cultivate people is calcareous soil. Remember that we are thinking about lands from the farm’s point of view.
Naturally, this soil was formed from limestone. As soon as one thing about which we know nothing is mentioned, another emerges of which we are equally ignorant. And so a whole chain of questions follows. Now you’re probably saying to each other, how was limestone first formed?
In earlier times, the lower forms of animals and plants harvested the lime water particles. With the lemon, they formed skeletons or houses on themselves as protection against larger animals. Coral is representative of this class of skeleton-forming animals.
When the animal died, the skeleton remained. Large masses of this living matter pressed together, after eons, forming limestone. Some limestones are still in such a shape that the formation of shells is still visible. Marble, another limestone, is somewhat crystalline.
Another well-known limestone is chalk. Maybe you want to know a way always to be able to say lime. Put some of this acid in a little lemon.
See how it bubbles up and fails. Then, throw some in this chalk and in the marble too. The same bubbling occurs. Therefore, the lime must be in these three structures. It is not necessary to buy a different acid for this work.